Module 3 washing

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Washing process


For an optimal washing process the following factors play a key role: temperature (heating), chemical action (detergent, bleach, water), mechanical action (drum of washing machine), and time (duration of washing cycle). These factors are called Sinnerís factors. It is assumed that improving or optimising any of these factors may reduce energy and water consumption. The washing process comprises all the parameters needed for the technical possibility of the process realisation: machines and equipments, installations which must provide the necessary energetic and technological agents, water of proper quality and temperature, technological heat, electrical energy, compressed air, a suitable production surface needed to place machines and to guarantee an indispensable area for transport inside laundry, social-sanitary area for staff, and heating and lighting installations.

Mechanical washing is a basic action of the whole process. It is realised in washer-extractors of different load capacity or tunnel-batch washers. The entire washing process depending greatly on type of washed textiles and type of applied machines amounts to 40-90 mins. The majority of modern washer-extractors and tunnel-batch washers are integrated with an automatic and mechanical dewatering process.

In commercial laundry processes, water and energy consumption is a crucial factor, which affects greatly the economics of the enterprise. Hence, the possibility of reduction of water and energy consumption in commercial laundries both by machine optimisation and by process design is considered.

These aspects of Sinnerís Circle on wash performance and the basic principles of washing process in washer extractors and in tunnel washers as well as a reduction in water and energy consumption are subject of this module.

Learning contents and targets:

Module 3 will introduce you to the basics of sustainable washing technology with regard to washer-extractors and tunnel washers taking into account different factors affecting the washing process. On the basis of 2 case studies for industrial laundries high temperature washing process costs were compared with those for the lower temperature washing.

Chapter No

Learning Content
duration: 1 day

Amount of charts



Sinnerís circle
effects on wash performance
survey on performance effects




Washing process in washer extractors




Washing in tunnel washers




Water and energy saving possibilities
by adaption of process design

a and b



Low temperature washing




Sanoxy system



Learning targets

After finishing the module you will:

know purposes of washing, basics on key factors affecting the wash performance

be able to recognize the importance of the mechanical factor on wash performance and dewatering process

know, recognize, and point out influence of different types of textiles on the residual moisture content after dewatering

know the general water consumption in laundries, main ingredients of modern washing detergents, role of bleaching/disinfecting agents in the washing process, application of enzymes in washing detergents, sequestering agents action, mechanism of electrostatic protection of textiles against greying, etc.

know the importance of temperature and time and its effect on wash performance with regard to bleaching and antibacterial action

know the washing process in washer extractors, kinds and design  of processes, efficiency effects, and possible reduction of water content

know the washing process in tunnel washers

know, as an example, the total energy consumption in industrial laundries including also the drying and finishing process and the heating of the office

be able, on the basis of 2 case studies presented, to identify possibility of energy and costs reduction in commercial laundries and to modify the washing process by reduction of steam and water costs, to obtain sustainability

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